Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-10-03 Origin: Site
1. Overview of soap washing agent
The soap washing agent and cleaning agent in the printing and dyeing aid are collectively referred to as detergents. At present, washing the washing agent in our printing and dyeing industry is generally called cleaning agent, and washing after staining or printing Prevention.
During the washing process, a series of complex physical -chemical -chemical -chemical -chemical -chemical -chemical -chemical -chemical -chemical (fabric, yarn, etc.) and object surface (fabric, yarn, etc.) and object surfaces (fabrics, yarn, etc. Such as wetting, penetration, adsorption, dissolution, emulsification, dispersion, analysis, foaming, etc., and use mechanical effects, the dirt is separated from the surface of the dirt and suspended to the medium, and finally washed the dirt. But at the same time, the washed dirt may be accumulated on the surface of the object, so the washing process can be seen as a reversible process. The following relationship can be used:
Object-dirt + detergent ←-→ Object-detergent + dirt-detergent
(1) Three -step gathering of fabric (including yarn) dyeing or printing process:
Dyeing (printing) -Stris -soap washing.
When dyeing (or printing), I hope that the dyes are full (time, temperature, or stamp pressure); the dyes that want to stay on the fabric during fixation are combined with fiber (chemical or steam); It is a fixing agent. When soap, I hope that the dye (chemical or slurry) of the fiber surface is fully dissolved in the soap bath.
(2) The purpose of soap washing process
After the cotton fabric or yarn is dyed or print (active dye, direct dye, etc.), there are more unsteady dyes, hydrolyzed dyes, chemicals, and pastes. Otherwise, it will affect the color fastness, brightness, and feel of the fabric. Polyester fabrics must be restored and cleaned after decentralized dye dyeing or printing.
Hydrolyzed dyes (unsteady dyes) are adsorbed on the fiber surface, that is, the so -called floating color, which seriously affects the color fastness, and must be washed full.
(3) The specific role of soap washing agent
1. After dyeing cotton fiber with active dyes, the dyes that are not fibrous, hydrolyzed dyes and dyeing additives that are attached to the fiber should be removed.
2. After dyeing or printing with cotton fiber, the unpopular color base, the base phenols and chemicals should be washed full.
3. After dyeing the decentralized dyeing carrier with a polyester, the carrier chemicals remaining on the fabric should be removed.
4. After the polyester dye is dyed high -temperature and high -pressure dyeing, the unpopular dyes and chemicals are fully removed.
5. The printing paste after various fabrics must be completely removed, and so on.
(4) Basic principles of soap washing process (take active dye dye as an example)
The unsteady dyes after dyeing exist:
1. In the capillary network between fabric fibers and fibers (outside);
2. In the pores in the fiber (middle);
3. On the cellulose molecular chain of the pore wall (inside)
The soap washing process is complicated: not only the physical exchange effect, scarcity, but also physical and chemical effects.
(5) The soap washing process can be divided into two stages: (initial period and washing period):
1. Initial period: fiber surface (outside), low water temperature, large water volume, electrolyte removal
2. Washing period: Fiber's tutium (middle) and the cellulose molecular chain (inside) of the touches wall,
The water temperature is high, the fiber is swollen, and the soap washing agent brought the unsteady dyes and chemicals into the soap
In the bath.
At the low temperature of the initial period of soap washing, reduce the electrolyte concentration to less than 1-2g/L, then heating, add the soap washing agent, and then enter the washing period.
If the electrolyte concentration during the washing period is too high, it is not conducive to the rescue of hydrolyzed dyes, but the dye must be concentrated to make the soap washing process imperfect. In particular, the ethylene -type active dye must be cleaned after the fiber is cleaned and then warmed up.
(6) There are six major functions during the soap washing process:
① Infiltration (low surface tension)
② Adsorption (ion key static electricity, hydrogen bond separation floating color)
③ Diversified (floating color scattered in soap washing solution)
④ Compassing (improved water quality, metal ions anti -staining)
⑤ washing (reaching dyeing fastness)
6 Decomposition (destroying unskilled dyes)
(7) The specific working principle of the soap washing agent during the soap washing process
1. Infiltration function, reduce the interface tension: The soap washing agent must penetrate into the unsteady dyes and fibers, weaken their adhesion, and separate the floating color and fiber.
2. Comparative and decentralized functions: The complexity and decentralization of soap washing agents are to disperse the floating color dye in the washing fluid, exert its colloidity, form a stable suspended dispersing system without returning to the fiber.
3. Adsorption function: The soap washing agent must have a directional adsorption effect, so that the affinity of anti -dipping soap washing agent and floating color dye should be greater than the fiber of the fiber to the floating color, so that the dyes in the residual fluid will not be returned to the fiber, and the fiber will not be paid to the fiber. Essence
4. Clean washing function: The soap washing agent must improve water quality to improve the washing efficiency, thereby achieving various dyeing fastness.
5. Use special enzymes or compounds to decompose unsteady dyes (floating colors) and destroy
Its hair color group, so as to fully remove its floating color;
6. You can also use mechanical effects (ultrasonic or vibration) to make unsure dyes from fiber
Second, the classification of soap washing agent
The soap washing agent used in the printing and dyeing industry has developed very rapidly and has a wide variety. In addition to its appearance can be divided into two categories of liquid and solids, it can be developed from its application performance classification (need to print and dyeing plant) and its molecular structure (research and development needs).
(1) Classification of the application performance of soap washing agent
The soap washing agent is divided into two categories: soap washed agent and white ground anti -dipping soap washed after staining.
1. Use soap washing agent after dyeing
(1) Single fiber woven staining soap washing agent
A, cotton fiber activated dye dyeing:
General soap, low soap washing agent, acid soap washing agent, low -temperature soap washing agent, anti -dipping soap washing agent, water -saving soap washing agent, soap powder, soap washing enzyme washing.
b, after the silk acidic dye is dyed:
General soap, low soap washing agent, etc.
c, polyester dye dyeing:
Restore cleaning agent, environmentally friendly restoration cleaning agent
(2) Anti -dipped soap washing agent used after blending, composite fiber, and interlaced fabrics
A, polyester / cotton -interted knitted fabric dyeing with anti -dipping soap washing agent
B, 棉 / cotton mixed spinning tube gauze dyeing with anti -dipping soap washing agent
C, nylon / cotton -intertwined bath method dyeing
D, PTT / cotton hydro -spinning one bath method dyeing
E, CDP / PET / Cotton / PA Statisy Embedded Facilities One Bathing Method Dyeing Anti -Staining Technology
2. The white ground anti -dipping soap was used after printing
(1) Active dyeing white ground anti -dipping soap washing agent used after the cotton fabric prints
(2) Platform -proof soap washing agent used in the silky dye in the silk, nylon printing
(3) Dis -dyeing dyes with white ground anti -dipping soap washing agent after polyester / cotton print
(4) Octopus dye with white ground anti -dipping soap washing agent after acrylic printing
(5) Full printed towels with white ground anti -dipping soap washing agent
(6) After tie -dyeing printing, use a white ground to prevent dipping soap washing agent
(2) The development classification of soap washing agent structure can be divided into four categories:
1. Early surfactant soap washing agent (first generation)
2. Synthetic polymer soap washing agent (second generation)
3. Adsorption (ionic adsorption) soap washing agent (third generation)
4. Water -saving, energy -saving, environmentally friendly (similar biological enzyme preparation) soap washing agent (fourth generation)
Third, the design idea of soap washing formula
(1) Three major factors affecting soap washing:
1. Water quality problem: High hardness will cause water -soluble hydrolyzed dyes into an insoluble precipitation; calcium and magnesium ions to reduce the cleaning function of the surface active agent;
2. Bubble problem: It is difficult to wash away, it needs to consume a lot of water to cause waste, and it may occur. Secondly, it is impossible to see the operation of the fabric in the equipment;
3. Diversifying and anti -staining functions of soap washing agents: the greater the scattered effect, the stronger the soap washing ability, reducing the fabric skewers or staining, and the improvement of the favorable color fastness;
(2) The function of the raw materials in the soap washing agent formula should have:
1. It has ingredients that have the functions of infiltration, cleaning, decontamination, and emulsification, that is, surfactants,
Seek low bubble. And the turbidity point is high, excluding APEO's environmental raw materials. Water solution should be good, not affecting dyeing color;
2. Polymer polymers with chelating and decentralized effects can effectively disperse dyes, organic matter (including paste) and inorganic suspended materials in the water;
3. Washing agent with resistance to re -deposition function, adsorption, or other efficiency effect. It can prevent the dyes in soap bathing on the fabric;
4. It has the hair color function that eliminates or destroys the hydrolyzed dye, can wash down the soap wastewater to clarify, and has good biodegradability;
5. It can be suitable for continuous soap washing or impregnating and overflowing soap washing processes.
(3) Requirements for the final complex soap washing agent:
1. It can effectively remove unsteady dyes, improve coloring, and brightness.
2. It can effectively remove other chemicals (including paste) on the surface of the fabric to avoid the effect of color light and feel.
3. It has no effect on the color (dye or printing) of the dye, and does not change or fade.
4. The foam should be less, the foaming time is short, and it is not affected by temperature.
5. Good water resistance is good and is not affected by water quality. When it is used for reducing and cleaning, it must have alkali resistance and stability resistance.
6. The decentralization of the dye should be better, and the washed dyes from the fabric.
7, the fiber is small, easy to wash and remove.
(4) The raw materials that can be used as a soap washed agent are as follows:
1. Surface active agent of cleaning ability
(1) Non -ion type:
Non -ion surfactants can be used as cleaning agents alone, or a variety of non -ionic surfactants can be reproduced into cleaning agents, and more is compliant with the anion surface active agent into cleaning agents.
The structure of the non -ion surface activated agent is: polyoxyethylene ether type, polyether type, fatamide type, heterogenic ether type, and sucrose ester type. The cleaning temperature must be below the turbidity point. In the hydrophobic group of non -ion surface active agents, the cleaning capacity of the alkyl group with chain chains is worse than that of the direct chain alkane. The specific variety is as follows:
(A) AEO-9, NP 8.6, 6501, (B) polyether LL61, L64, F68
(C) Iso -alcohol ether To10, XP90, (D) AT80, P800
(2) Popular ions:
The anion surfactant is the largest type of surfactant in the cleaning agent. Its structures include soap, sodium olefin sulfonate, sodium alkylzide, sodium fatamine sulfate, sodium alkyl sulfonate, oil Sodium noreinet turic acid. Generally speaking, the carbon chain has good cleaning performance, but the specific variety must be as follows under the solubility:
(A) Clean Washing agent LS, cleaning agent 209, (b) alkylzene sulfonic acid DBSA, SAS60
2. Surface active agent with adsorption function
(1) Code type:
(A) Fattyamine polyoxyethylene ether AC1860, AC1815
(B) Multi -season ammonium salt surfactant, such as Henan Dao Pure Chemical 31616, etc.
(C) Special quarterly ammonium salt, such as Kunshan Kele 3024
(2) Non -ion type: PVP or modified PVP
3. Chelating decentralized function surface active agent
(1) Popular objects:
Popular ion type: Ma Bing's cluster MA/AA, polyacrylic acid PaaS,
Jumala acid anhydride PMA, etc.
(2) Low molecules:
Different agents NNO, M, Pingping plus O -class
(3) Carboxylic acid: amino carboxylic acid, hydroxyl aminotoxic acid, hydroxyl carboxylic acid,
Ammonia triacerite (NTA), Trofamitetamide Trone Acetosol (DTPA),
Ethyleine tetraitine (EDTA)
4, inorganic substance:
As a washing agent in the soap washing agent, the effect of soap washing is improved. It has a chelating effect on metal ions. Swimnes are scattered to prevent it from dirting again.
(1) Alkaline metal salt: diatomic soil, 4A zigzag, sodium silicate, etc.
(2) Rare earth, pussy soil, etc.
Fourth, the molecular structure, composition, and development principle of various soap washing agents
(1) Early surfactant soap washing agent (first generation)
The cleaning agent made of surfactants is based on the main replica, such as flat plus O, cleaning agent LS (sodium pesosulsezenate, 2-methoxy-5-oil ammonia Sodium benzene sulfate), cleaning agent 209 (pancreas plus drifting T, the main chemical components are n-methyl-N-sodium oily taurine) and other yin non-ionic surface active agents. After staining, water washing, neutralization, soap washing and other processes. During the washing process, due to its low surface tension and good permeability, floating colors and hydrolyzed dyes were easily separated from fiber, but the dyes that fall off in the soap washing may also be re -adsorbed. There is a dynamic balance between them. Therefore, the traditional soap washing agent cannot be washed thoroughly. It is just a general washing and decontamination. It does not have the function of preventing response to the dipping.
2. Preparation of cleaning the washing agent 209 (pancreatic plus D):
The main component of the cleaning agent 209 is sodium N-N-oil-based taurine, molecular formula:
C17H33-C0-N (CH3) -CH2-CH2-So3NA
It is from oleic acid as the raw material, and the synthetic reaction type is as follows:
3C17H33COOH + PCL3 --- → 3C17H33COCL + H3PO3
C17H33COCL + CH3NH2CH2CH2CH2SO3NA + NaOH -----
C17H33-C0-N (CH3) -CH2-CH2-So3NA + H2O + NaCl
The appearance of the product is pale yellow gel liquid, pH is 7.2-8, which is easy to dissolve in water.
(2) Synthetic high polymer soap washing agent (second generation)
Some of the soap -washing agents represented by BASF DEKOL SNS have good soap washing effects. The main components are mainly based on polyacryonic acid or horses. The principle of its role is to use the excellent chelating and decentralized performance of the polymer. On the one hand, the metal ions in the water can be cheeped to prevent metal ions from combining with hydrolyzed dyes to precipitate or adsorb on the fiber surface. Or the unsteady dyes are scattered in the water to better prevent the washed dyes from reinstatement.