Views: 1000 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-09-15 Origin: Site
1 Fixing agent
At present, the color fastness and formaldehyde content of textiles are strictly controlled at home and abroad. Therefore, a fixing agent must be added to the textiles during the dyeing process for fixing treatment. Fixing agent is one of the commonly used auxiliaries in textile printing and dyeing industry, which can improve the fastness of dyes on fabrics. The fixing agents used in the printing and dyeing industry in my country in the early days are mostly fixing agent Y, fixing agent M, etc. These fixing agents mostly contain free formaldehyde, which will gradually release harmful substances after being made into clothing, which is not good for human health.
In recent years, formaldehyde-free fixing agents have been successfully developed to comply with the requirements of the times, such as imidazoline fixing agents, fixing agents synthesized from epichlorohydrin and polyvinyl polyamines (such as fixing F, fixing agents) MRT-1), polyamine fixing agents (such as fixing agent H, fixing agent GQ-600), etc., are the most commonly used formaldehyde-free fixing agents on the market. The fixing performance of these products is greatly improved compared with fixing agent Y, and they do not contain formaldehyde, but they also have certain defects in other aspects. For example, the polyamine fixing agent contains more primary, secondary and tertiary amines in the molecule, which is easy to be oxidized and cause color change; the fixing agent synthesized by epichlorohydrin and polyvinyl polyamine is soaping resistant The color fastness is not high.
In view of the shortcomings of the above-mentioned formaldehyde-free fixing agents, the development of new fixing agents has become a research hotspot . Li Hongxia and others developed a sol-gel type fixing agent, which uses tiny sol particles to form a three-dimensional network structure film on the surface of the fabric to achieve the purpose of color fixing; Zhang Zhenhua and others developed a nano-type fixing agent. Toner, the film formed by polymer nano-silicone is used to improve the color fastness of the fabric.
Surfactant is mainly used to reduce the surface tension of the solution, can play the role of wetting, emulsifying, foaming, etc. It is the largest type of substance in textile auxiliaries and is vividly called "industrial monosodium glutamate". Beginning in the 1950s, my country began to vigorously develop the surfactant industry; by the 1980s, there were about 130 types of surfactants developed; by the beginning of the 21st century, there were nearly 2,000 types of surfactants.
Surfactants are divided into cationic, anionic, nonionic and zwitterionic. Different types of formulations have different applications in the textile industry. Commonly used anionic surfactants include sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate, sodium alkylsulfonate, etc.; commonly used nonionic surfactants include alkyl alcohol phosphate, alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene Ether, etc.; the current development and production of cationic surfactants is focused on quaternary ammonium salts, which can be well absorbed on the surface of the fiber and can play an antistatic effect; common zwitterionic surfactants such as betaine And imidazoline type.
As people's requirements for textiles become higher and higher, more functional surfactants have been developed. For example, Huang Zhonglin  and others have synthesized a quaternary ammonium salt surfactant, which can be used to prevent mildew on leather.
3 Chemical fiber oil
Chemical fiber finish is mainly used in the spinning process of chemical fiber such as polyester, acrylic, etc. It can eliminate static electricity generated in the production process and make the fiber have excellent spinnability. From mineral oils in the 1950s to today's new multi-component and additive oils, chemical fiber oils have undergone many breakthroughs and innovations. The key to the research and development of chemical fiber oils today is the antistatic property, softness and smoothness of the oils. Therefore, the continuous improvement of the functions of antistatic surfactants, emulsifiers and smoothing agents and the development of new technologies for the synthesis of oils are the development of chemical fiber oils. key.
The smoothing agent in the chemical fiber oil agent is mainly polyether, synthetic fatty acid ester and a small amount of mineral oil; the antistatic agent is mainly alkyl ether phosphate and alkyl phosphate ; the emulsifier is mainly polyoxyethylene ether compound . At present, there are many research results on chemical fiber oil agents. For example, Zhou Yongkai used terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol to synthesize a new type of antistatic agent for the finishing of wool/polyester fiber blended fabrics. The antistatic property of the fabric is significantly improved; Wang Feng used smoothing agent 680 to finish pure cotton knitted fabrics, reducing the formation of sewing needle holes.
4 Flame retardant
Flame retardants are a class of functional additives, which are mainly used in the textile industry to change the burning properties of fabrics. According to the composition of flame retardants, flame retardants can be divided into halogen series, phosphorus series, nitrogen series, silicon series and so on. In recent years, the development of high-efficiency, low-smoke, low-toxic and dust-free flame retardants has become an important direction for the development of flame retardant science .
The flame retardants used in textiles of different materials are different. For cellulose fiber fabrics, the commonly used flame retardants are phosphorus-containing compounds, such as phosphorus oxide, ammonium polyphosphate, phosphorus heterocyclic compounds, and tetramethylol phosphorus chloride; The flame retardant for polyester fabrics is often a cyclic phosphate compound; the flame retardant commonly used for polyester-cotton blended fabrics is vinyl phosphate oligomer. Due to the excellent flame retardancy and environmental protection of boron-based flame retardants, they have also become one of the hot spots for development.
Ding Peipei synthesized a new intumescent flame retardant by a two-step method and applied it to polyester fabrics with excellent flame retardant effect; A. Sierra Fernandez prepared nano-sized Mg(OH) by hydrothermal method 2. Microcapsule flame retardant is prepared by in-situ polymerization method, which improves the limiting oxygen index of cellulose fiber and makes the fiber have better flame retardant performance. With the continuous development of science and technology, flame retardants are developing rapidly towards microencapsulation, ultrafineness and compounding.