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How much do you know about "enzyme"?

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-10-10      Origin: Site


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Have you heard of "enzyme"?

How much do you know about "enzyme"?

Let's first take a look at Baidu's interpretation of the concept of "enzyme": enzymes are produced by live cells, protein or RNA with high specific specificity and high catalytic performance for their substrates.

The catalysis of enzyme depends on the integrity of the first -level structure and spatial structure of the enzyme molecule. If enzyme molecular degeneration or sub -solution can cause enzyme activity loss. Enzymes are macromolecules, with a molecular mass of at least 10,000, and large ones. Enzyme is an extremely important biocatalyst. Due to the role of enzymes, the chemical reactions in the organism can be performed efficiently under extremely gentle conditions.

Why is healthy inseparable from "enzyme"?

Medical research has confirmed that many diseases are caused by insufficient intake of enzymes or excessive loss of enzymes. When a certain kind of enzyme is lacking in the human body, and it is not supplemented in time, it will cause illness. Therefore, doctors often quote the concept of enzymes to help diagnose and treat diseases.

For example, lipids that constitute a human cell membrane, when the body lacks antioxidant enzymes, it is easy to produce peroxidation effects. Once lipids are oxidized, the cell biofilm is destroyed, which will easily cause various diseases such as skin color spots, anemia, hemolysis, thrombosis, arteriosclerosis and diabetes.

Human and mammals contain hundreds or even thousands of enzymes. Because one of the significant features of enzymes is the specificity of its catalytic effect, various enzymes play a different role, and the whole process of life is maintained by various enzymes.

For example, the carbohydrates that are consumed are mainly starch. Under the action of amylase in saliva, the essence and maltose hydrolysis as glucose; the edible protein, under the action of gastric protease, hydrolyze the protein into protein and amino acids; the edible Fat, under the action of lipase, disintegrate fat to glycerin and fatty acids.

In the whole process of growing, developing, maintaining life and fertility, people need to consume energy. These energy are used to enter the human body after digestion and absorption, and then oxidize and degradation, can it be gradually released by the energy stored in the food and is used.

This entire process must also be involved in various enzymes. Human metabolism needs to go through a series of chemical reactions. These chemical reactions must have various enzymes to participate.

The type and role of "enzyme"

According to the chemical composition of enzymes, enzymes can be divided into two types: simple enzymes and binding enzymes.

In the simple enzyme molecule is an amino acid residue of the peptide chain. In addition to the protein composed of polypeptide chains, there are non -protein components, such as metal ions, iron pheasin, or small molecule organic objects containing B vitamins.

The protein part of the binding enzyme is called enzyme protein, and the non -protein part is collectively referred to as auxiliary factor, and the two form a whole enzyme; only the whole enzyme has catalytic activity. If the two are separated, the enzyme vitality disappears.

Non -protein parts such as iron pheasin or compounds containing B vitamins. If the enzyme protein is connected to the covalent bond, it is called auxiliary base, and the method of dialysis or ultrafiltration cannot be separated from the enzyme protein; otherwise the two are non -commonly common in common. The price key is connected to the coenzyme, which can be separated by the above methods.

There are two categories of auxiliary factors, one is metal ions, and often auxiliary bases, which plays the role of transmitting electrons; the other is the organic compound of small molecules, which mainly plays the role of hydrogen atoms, electronics or certain chemical groups.

Metal ions in the combination of enzymes have multiple functions, they may be composition of the enzyme activity center; some may work on the constitution of stable enzyme molecules; some may be connected to the substrate as a bridge. The auxin enzyme and the auxiliary group play the role of hydrogen or chemical groups in the carrier of hydrogen or certain chemical groups in the catalytic reactions.

There are many types of enzymes in the body, but there are not many types of auxiliary factors in enzymes. It is common to use some of the same metal ions as an example of auxiliary factor. The same situation is also found in the coenzyme and auxiliary base, such as 3-phosphate glycerin The aldehyde dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrase enzymes use NAD+as coenzymes.

The specificity of enzyme catalytic reactions determines the enzyme protein part, and the role of coenzymes and auxiliary groups is to participate in the carrier of hydrogen and some special chemical groups in the specific reaction process. For enzymes that need auxiliary factor, the auxiliary factor is also part of the activity center.

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