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How to understand the solubility of additives and their stability to hard water and metal ions?

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For example, the solubility of anionic surfactants in alkaline is greater than that in acids, while cationic surfactants are on the contrary. Amphoteric surface active agents have both anionic and cationic characteristics, while nonionic surfactants have less influence.


The solubility of the first three surfactants increases when the temperature rises, while the solubility of nonionic surfactants decreases with the rise of temperature, so there is a cloud point, which must be higher than the use temperature, otherwise its efficiency will be lost , Can not play the role of additives. The cloud point increases with the increase of EO number. Increase with the amount of anionic additives incorporated. But it decreases as the electrolyte content increases. If Pingping is used as a leveling agent or dispersant for high-temperature and high-pressure dyeing, the use temperature will greatly exceed its cloud point (usually around 75°C), which will cause it to fold out in the dye solution. Not only will it not work, but it will condense the dye. And cause color spots. Silicone defoamers are emulsions emulsified by methyl silicone oil or ethyl silicone oil with non-ionic surfactants and white carbon black. If emulsifiers with low cloud point are used, the same problems mentioned above will occur. This problem is often not paid attention to, which causes great harm to printing and dyeing factories.

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